GPON has a downstream capacity of 2.488 Gbits/s and an upstream capacity of 1.244 Gbits/s that is shared among users. Encryption is used to keep each user’s data secured and private from other users. Although there are other technologies that could provide fiber to the home, passive optical networks (PONs) like GPON are generally considered the strongest candidate for widespread deployments. GPON does broadcast to its downstream [14].

GPON Broadcasting to Downstream
                            Figure: GPON Broadcasting to Downstream

The operating wavelength range is 1480-1500 nm for the downstream and 1260-1360 for upstream. It provides unprecedented bandwidth (shared by up to 128 premises), and a greater distance from a central office (20 to 40 kilometres), allowing service providers to enable bandwidth-intensive applications and establish a long-term strategic position in the broadband market. Enterprise GPON is also a carrier class technology that provides a high level of Quality of Service (QOS) of 99.999% for those customers with mission-critical requirements. GPON manufacturers are now working on devises that will allow up to 10Gbs on bandwidth. GPON works to its upstream by using Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) [14].

GPON TDMA to Upstream
                                 Figure: GPON TDMA to Upstream


As a result, a new standard known as G987 or also known at 10-PON has 10 Gbit/s downstream and 2.5 Gbit/s upstream – framing is “G-PON like” and designed to coexist with GPON devices on the same network. This is great news for data network managers looking for low-cost, high-bandwidth, networking technologies in order to keep up with the demands on data applications and growth including “cloud” services. By GPON Technology, service provider could provide several services to its customers like- IP TV, Voice (VoIP), Video, Data Connectivity, Internet connectivity, value added service (Online gaming, Social networking, Video on Demand, etc) and other services.